Compiled by Amelia Healey, GRASAC Research Assistant
- July 8 – early August, 1764
- Fort Niagara, New York
Nations and Representatives
- Represented by Sir William Johnson, Superintendent of Indian Affairs
The Western Confederacy (based on Alan Ojiig Corbiere’s (2019, 197) transcription of William Johnson’s published papers)
- Algonquin & Nipissing
- Represented by Wabikackeck or White Hawk
- Chipeweigh (Ojibwe)
- Represented by Shownannicaboa, Kagaisse, Sowwongibbey
- Christinox (Cree)
- Represented by Ogewetassin
- Represented by Wabbicommicott (Wabbicomicot), Weynakibio, Estawabey
- Represented by Grand Pee, Chicconaway, Succamoy or “Musketo”, Wabashogo or “White Crab”, Wenosachey or “Bever [sic]”
- Ottawas (Odawa)
- Represented by Bindanouan, Cashkokey, Teckamus, Otchinggwas, Pemmassad, Shawwamusse, Otchibauscasigon, Kiocuskcum (Kiwegoshkum), Egorniney (Egominey, Negominey), Nosawaquet (Nissawaquot, etc), Mackakeeman (Mechukimon), Piggagun (Piggagoonin)
- Puans (Puoans, Winnebago, Ho-Chunk)
- Represented by Winosigo
- Reynards (Fox, Outagamies)
- Represented by Nonoh
- Sauk (Sakis, Sacs, Sakeys)
- Represented by Weshion (Washiboo), Akousy (Aukussey)
- Toughkamawiman (Toughkamiwan)
- Represented by Shuckey “The Crane”
The Six Nations Confederacy
- Caughnawagas (Kahnawake)
- Cannesadagas (Kahnasatake)
- Renewed and extended relationships under the Covenant Chain alliance
- Peace between the British and Indigenous partners; end of the “French Indian War”
- Royal Proclamation of 1763
- Offensive and defensive agreement
- Release of prisoners
- Dish With One Spoon Treaty, mid-1100s
- Two Row Wampum, 1613
- Fort Albany Treaty, 1664
- Nanfan Treaty, 1701
- Albany Conference, June 1754
- 1761 Alliance, Detroit
- Wyandot-British peace treaty, July 1764
- Seneca-British peace treaty, August 1764
- Treaty of Fort Niagara, 1781
- McKee Treaty, No. 2, 1790
- Toronto Purchase, Treaty 13, 1805
- Treaty 18, 1818
- Treaty 19, 1818
- Treaty 20, 1818
- Manitoulin Island Treaty, 1836
- Robinson Superior Treaty, 1850
- Robinson Huron Treaty, 1850
- Williams Treaties, 1923
- The Papers of Sir William Johnson (Albany: University of the State of New York, 1921-1965).
- General Index of The Papers of Sir William Johnson available through Internet Archive. https://archive.org/details/papersofsirwilli14johnuoft.
- Niagara Covenant Chain Belt. Reproduction, featuring date 1764 and two human figures.
- Digital copy is available through the Canadian Museum of History. https://www.historymuseum.ca/collections/artifact/2515318.
- 1764 George III Indian Chief Medal, Happy While United. Featuring Library and Archives Canada / Acc. No. 1986-79-1612 / e01093386.
- Digital copy is available through Library and Archives Canada. https://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/CollectionSearch/Pages/record.aspx?app=FonAndCol&IdNumber=2851169.
- Assikinawk’s Reading of the 1764 Covenant Chain Belt and the 22 Nations Belt (Archival Document). LAC, RG10, Volume 613, pp.440-442. October 21, 1851. GKS ID 894.
- Assiginack’s Canoe. Made by Jean Baptiste Assiginack (Odawa), 1815-1827. Canadian Museum of History. Accession no. III-M-10 a-n. GKS ID 1058.
- Virtual Exhibition: Four Views of a Model Canoe.
- Minutes of a Meeting held with all of the “Western Indians” in their Camp with Sir William Johnson. Milton W. Hamilton., ed. The Papers of Sir William Johnson, Volume XI (Albany: The University of the State of New York, 1953) pp. 308-313. GKS ID 678.
- Notice to Traders from Sir William Johnson, July 19, 1764. In “The papers of Sir William Johnson, Volume 4,” prepared for publication by the Division of Archives and History, pg 490. Albany: University of the State of New York, 1925. GKS ID: 58845.
- Sir William Johnson to Cadwallader Colden, August 23, 1764. In “The papers of Sir William Johnson, Volume 4,” prepared for publication by the Division of Archives and History, pg 511-514. Albany: University of the State of New York, 1925. GKS ID: 58846.
- Sir William Johnson to the Earl of Halifax, August 30, 1764. In “Documents relative to the colonial history of the state of New-York, Volume 7,” procured by John Romeyn Brodhead, edited by F.B. O’Callaghan, pg 647. Albany: Weed, Parsons, 1856. GKS ID: 58847.
- Sir William Johnson to the Lords of Trade, August 30, 1764. In “Documents relative to the colonial history of the state of New-York, Volume 7,” procured by John Romeyn Brodhead, edited by F.B. O’Callaghan, pg 648-650. Albany: Weed, Parsons, 1856. GKS ID: 58848.
- Sir William Johnson to Thomas Gage, January 27, 1764. In “The papers of Sir William Johnson, Volume 4,” prepared for publication by the Division of Archives and History, pg 307-308. Albany: University of the State of New York, 1925. GKS ID: 58833.
- Thomas Gage to Sir William Johnson, June 10, 1764. In “The papers of Sir William Johnson, Volume 4,” prepared for publication by the Division of Archives and History, pg 446-448. Albany: University of the State of New York, 1925. GKS ID: 58842.
- WAMPUM RECORDS OF THE OTTAWAS. Archival document. Annual Archaeological Report 1901. Printed by Order of the Legislative Assembly. Toronto: 1902. GKS ID 666.
- 1764 Niagara Covenant Chain Wampum Belt. Made by Ken Maracle, 2016. Canadian Museum of History. Accession no. 2016.48; Artifact no. LH2016.48.2.
- Treaty of Niagara Alliance Medal, 1764. Library and Archives Canada. Accession no. 1986-79-1612/e010933865.
- Royal Proclamation of 1763. Library and Archives Canada, MIKAN 1386632.
- odriyohsrędaˀǫh (verbal noun, Gayogoho:nǫˀ (Cayuga)): peace (literally, the war has ended)
- degaihwakahǫˀ (verbal noun, Gayogoho:nǫˀ (Cayuga)): alliance
- Tganawai:ˀ (verbal noun, Gayogoho:nǫˀ (Cayuga)): Niagara-On-The-Lake
- meshkdoonaa (transitive animated verb (vta), Nishnaabemwin (Odawa/Eastern Ojibwe)): exchange sth. (an.), trade sth. (an.) in
- dehęnędadawihs (verbal noun, Gayogoho:nǫˀ (Cayuga)): trades, commerce, barter
- Borrows, John. “Wampum at Niagara: Canadian Legal History, Self-Government, and the Royal Proclamation.” In Aboriginal and Treaty Rights in Canada: Essays on Law, Equity, and Respect for Difference, edited by Michael Asch. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. 1998.
- Corbiere, Alan. “Anishinaabe Treaty-Making in the 18th- and 19th-Century Northern Great Lakes: From Shared Meanings to Epistemological Chasms.” York University, September 2017.
- Williams, Paul. “The Chain.” Osgoode Hall Law School of York University, March 1982. https://www.proquest.com/docview/303260875/A0F55311A25D4100PQ/1?accountid=1477
- Canadian Museum of History. “The Covenant Chain, Royal Proclamation and Treaty of Niagara.” Accessed 13 January 13 2022. https://www.historymuseum.ca/history-hall/covenant-chain-royal-proclamation-treaty-niagara/.
- Government of Ontario, Newsroom. “Commemorating the Treaty of Fort Niagara: 250 Years of Shared History: Ontario, First Nations Partners Mark Significant Anniversary.” 1 August 2014. https://news.ontario.ca/en/release/30080/commemorating-the-treaty-of-fort-niagara-250-years-of-shared-history
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